3rd Grade - San Leandro History Resources
Who are the first people to live in present day San Leandro?
What is an elder?
Who are your elders?
Name one thing baskets were used for?
What are the different techniques they used to hunt?
The Ohlone were “Hunters and Gatherers” what do you think that means?
Does the Ohlone Child go to school? Who do they learn from?
Do the children still learn?
Compare your life to the life of children in an Ohlone village, how is it similar and different from yours?
East Bay Regional Park District Curriculum
San Leandro History Museum
3rd Grade Virtual tour
Muwekma Ohlone: American Indian lineage aboriginal to the San Francisco Bay region who trace their ancestry through Mission Dolores, Santa Clara, and San Jose; the first people who lived on the land we now call San Leandro Pronunciation
Jalquin/ Halkin: the Muwekma Ohlone name for this area before it was given the name San Leandro Pronunciation Guide Pronunciation
elders: the adults in the village, role models, highly respected and valued for wisdom and skills; they taught the children in the village about their culture and the world around them; how to hunt, gather food, told stories about how things came to be
Chochenyo: the Muwekma Ohlone language spoken in what we know as San Leandro today; still spoken today by Ohlone descendants Pronunciation
acorns: the fruit of the oak tree, a smooth oval nut in a rough cup-shaped base.
tule: a tall plant that grows in marshland; gathered for making homes, boats, and baby baskets Pronunciation
Ruwwas: (pronounced rooway) what tule homes were called.
baskets: a container made from plants, used to gather plants, foods, trapping fish, cooking, and storing food and jewelry; an important part of the Ohlone culture;
acorn mush: a nutritious nutty flavored oatmeal-like dish; one of the main food staples in Ohlone diet; made by leaching ground acorns, mixing with water, and heated using cooking stones
hunting: the activity of hunting or capturing wild animals for food
sweathouse: a house-like structure, hunters went inside to prepare for an upcoming hunt; to sweat out human scent
camouflage: use of materials or color, to disguise as something else
bolas: from Spanish word “ball”, a throwing and/or hunting tool made with weights or animal bones on the ends of interconnected cords used to capture birds and small animals by entangling their legs
pump drill: a handmade tool used for boring or making holes into shells using simple linear motion that is easy for a human to produce and turn into rotation
obsidian: a naturally occurring volcanic rock (glass) used to make sharp cutting tools
ceremony: a special gathering or occasion to celebrate a particular event, and give prayer
regalia: special jewelry and clothing worn for dances or special events
Why did the Spanish come to Alta California?
How do you think the Ohlone felt when they first saw the Spanish?
What was the priest’s job at the mission?
How are today’s historians able to know so much of what happened then?
The priest believed the Ohlone needed help, to be taught the Spanish way of life, but did the Ohlone need any help? Were they living perfectly fine before the Spanish came?
What was the soldier’s job?
What do you think happened to those that tried to run away?
Would you be afraid of the soldiers, if you were in the Ohlone’s shoes, why or why not?
What kinds of jobs did Ohlone men do at the mission?
What kinds of jobs did Ohlone women do at the mission?
Before the missions, the Ohlone hunted and gathered their food, now the padres are teaching them how to farm. If you all of a sudden had to eat new foods, would you miss the food you grew up eating?
What was the purpose of the mission bells on the missions?
Are there any “bells” in your life, today, that tell you what to do? Or “remind” you about the time of day?
How have the Ohlone Peoples’ lives changed on the mission?
Who are the children learning from now?
How is the Ohlone child’s life different on the mission?
Why were so many people dying?
Why is that a problem for the missions?
San Leandro History Museum
3rd Grade Virtual tour
Alta California: (pronounced “all-tuh”) Upper California; also known as Nueva California (“New California”) a part of “New Spain” established in 1804. Included the modern states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico.
mission: a religious outpost; mini town; location or courtyard, a series of 21 missions were established between 1769 and 1833 in what is now the state of California as an effort to convert Native Americans to Catholicism and expand European territory
Catholic: a person who belongs to the Catholic Church
Catholicism: the faith and practice of the Catholic Church; Religion; the religion of practiced in Spain at the time; the religion of the Spanish settlers
priest/ padre: religious leader, authorized to perform sacred duties between human and God
Francisco Palóu: the priest who started Mission Dolores Pronunciation Guide
Mission Dolores: mission located in the city of San Francisco, founded October 9, 1776 by Francisco Palóu, companion of Junípero Serra, both members of the De Anza expedition, which brought Spanish settlers to Alta California; it was the 7th of 21 Spanish Missions; where the local Indians, including Ohlone peoples were converted to Catholicism; it stands as the oldest intact building structure in San Francisco; most Muwekma Ohlone were taken to Mission Dolores
Mission San Jose: mission located in the city of Fremont, founded on June 11, 1797 by Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen, the 14th of the 21 Spanish Missions in Alta California; also a mission many Ohlone Peoples were taken to and baptized
adobe: a mixture of clay, straw, and water that is dried into bricks used as building material
pueblos: a small town, village, or settlement
settlement: a place where people start a community or town
villages: a small community in a rural area; settlement
presidios: forts built to protect the missions; military base
slave: a person who is the legal property of another person; forced to obey them; work very hard without pay or no freedom, unable to leave or escape
farmers: a person who manages or works on a farm or piece of land, planting, growing, and harvesting crops and raising livestock (animals such as cows, sheep, chickens)
carpenters: a builder, a person who builds, makes, and repairs objects and structures like homes, and buildings
mission bells: used to signal the call to prayer, time of day, when to start work and the end of the day
baptism: a religious ceremony that makes a person a member of the Catholic Church with the use of water. It may be performed by sprinkling or pouring water on a persons head.
diseases: a medical condition with specific signs and symptoms
measles: a contagious deadly disease that spreads through the air; brought over when the Spanish came to California; killed many California Indians
smallpox: a contagious deadly disease/ virus with flu-like symptoms and a rash that appears on the face, hands, and forearms; brought over when the Spanish came to California; killed many California Indians
California was once part of Mexico, True or False?
Do you think the Ohlone had a better life on the ranchos? Why or why not?
Who is doing all the work on the ranchos?
What kind of jobs did the men and women have on the ranchos?
Why were the Ohlone not allowed to ride horses?
Were the Ohlone men and women working on the rancho paid for their hard work?
What did the rancho owners use to trade with? What was their currency?
What sorts of goods did the rancheros trade for?
Why did the American traders on the ships want hides and tallow? What could be made from the hides and tallow?
Do we still trade with other countries today? (think of the word IMPORT instead of TRADE)
Do YOU ever trade things with your friends or classmates? What kind of “goods” do you trade with?
How would you feel if you were an Ohlone child servant on the rancho? Do you think they were free?
Mexico: the country that borders the United States to the south of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas
Californios: Spanish-speaking people, native to the state of California
land grant: gift of land given by the government
ranchos: “ranch” in Spanish; a large farm
ranchero or rancheria: a rancho owner, person granted a plot of land to start a rancho
cattle: cows and bulls
diseño: “design”; a roughly hand drawn map that showed the boundaries of land; required to accompany Spanish and Mexican land grant petitions Pronunciation
Estudillo: Last name of Jose Joaquin who started Rancho San Leandro Pronunciation
Rancho San Leandro: 7,000 acre land grant given to Jose Joaquin Estudillo from San Leandro Creek to San Lorenzo Creek, which later became the city of San Leandro
fiestas: a celebration or party; took place during the rodeo that sometimes lasted for days
vaquero: Spanish word for cowboy; cattle worker; expert horse riders and ropers Pronunciation
brand: marks or initials burned into the skin of cattle to tell everyone who the cow belongs to
rodeo: cattle roundups; gathering of cattle to be counted, sorted, slaughtered, and branded
hide (cowhide): cow skin; used to make leather; used as currency to trade with in place of money
tallow: cow fat; melted and turned into candles and soap; used as currency to trade with
currency: something that is used as money
trade/ barter: exchanging or “buying and selling” one good for another without the using money
goods: items, things; merchandise; coffee, sugar, tea, cotton, lace, silk
servant: a person who performs duties for others
What year did California become a state of the United States?
What was discovered in California that made people move here to become rich?
If you worked at the Cannery for 5 cents an hour, 10 hours a day, 6 days a week, how much money did you make in one week?
Children often worked in the canneries or for their parent’s small business, like Abraham, to help support their family and pay bills. This was before Child Labor Laws. What kind of chores are you responsible for at home, today?
Lake Chabot is a man-made lake, True or False?
Do you think it was unfair how the Chinese workers like Ah Bing were treated?
What invention is Daniel Best most known for?
The first Cherry Festival was held in what year?
Close your eyes and think about your family. Where is your family from? When did they move to San Leandro? Why did they choose to live in San Leandro?
Gold Rush: discovery of gold in California bringing many people to the state in hopes of striking it rich
Cherry City: San Leandro was known as Cherry City for the large amount of cherries produced here.
immigrant: a person who comes to a country to live there permanently
canning: the process of storing and preserving fruit and vegetables in a can to make them last longer
cannery: a factory where food is canned, packed, and shipped for sale
factory: a place where things are made
discrimination: unfair treatment of others because of who they are, or characteristics they possess; the way a person looks, speaks, where they come from
Indian Boarding Schools: overnight schools Indian children were legally required to attend for 3 to 4 years where they were forced to become “American”; to get rid of their native culture
Anthony Chabot: a businessman who developed hydraulic mining for building water systems such as Lake Chabot (named after Mr. Chabot)
Lake Chabot: regional park, reservoir
dynamite: an explosive and dangerous technique used to blow up parts of mountains to make space for a lake or tunnel
archeologist: a person who studies human history through excavation of sites and analyzing artifacts and physical remains
Yemo-Po: “wild-horse slope” in Cantonese; Chinese men’s work camp at Lake Chabot Pronunciation
inventor: a person who invented or discovered or came up with something
tractor: a powerful motor vehicle with large rear wheels used for farming or pulling trailers
Cherry Festival: an annual local festival or celebration that started in 1909 when there was a bumper crop of cherries, the town decided to celebrate by having a festival